On this page
- Executive summary
- The landscape
- Data collection
- Changes from last year
- Use of schemes for automatic enrolment
- Money transferred into schemes
- Small self-administered schemes
- Total schemes year on year
- Market value of scheme assets
- Annual contributions (by employer and employee)
- Governance structure
- Amounts leaving schemes
- Transfers into schemes
- Governance structures
- Decumulation options
- Scheme status
- Member status
- Data tables
In this year’s statistics release we've provided a textual description of the collection methods for the data contained in the Microsoft Excel (XLS) files at the end of this page, together with information on what is covered by each of the different files.
- Files 1, 2, 3 and 4 are based on schemes with 12 or more members (with the exception of table 1 in file 1, which is based on all schemes with two or more members).
- File 5 is based on schemes with 2 to 11 members.
- File 6 shows relevant effective date information.
You can view and download the files in data tables.
- The total number of schemes with 2 or more DC members continues to decline. Last year scheme numbers reduced by 2.5%, this year they reduced by 3.5%.
- The total number of schemes with 12 or more DC members also declined, by 4%, from 3,080 to 2,950.
- The total DC memberships of occupational schemes with 12 or more members increased by 80% (to over 4.5 million).
- Active membership has increased by 140% (to over 3 million).
- Reported assets in non-micro DC schemes increased by £3 billion (11%).
- DC schemes received net transfers in of £398 million.
Schemes used for automatic enrolment
- There are 300 schemes being used for automatic enrolment.
- 87% of members are in schemes being used for automatic enrolment.
- Scheme and membership numbers continue to reduce (around 3%).
- Around 65% of micro schemes are small self administered schemes.
The table below represents the private pension landscape in the UK, showing at a high level the different forms of employer-sponsored provision available within the private sector, and giving an overview of the size of each.
This statistics release focuses on the areas marked as DC (trust) and DC memberships of hybrid dual-section schemes. We do not include data on assets held in DC sections of hybrid schemes as we do not collect this information.
There are many varieties of hybrid schemes, but they can broadly be classed as either mixed benefit or dual-section:
- a mixed benefit scheme is one offering one set of benefits which has elements of both defined benefit (DB) and DC schemes, such as a DC scheme with a contracted out underpin on a DB basis
- a dual-section scheme has two sections, one offering DC benefits and the other offering DB benefits
|DB||Hybrid: mixed benefit||Hybrid: dual-section||DC (trust)||DC (workplace contract)|
|Total active members||1,305,000||94,000||717,000||2,592,000||3,016,000|
(Sources: The Pensions Regulator's data base on scheme returns, 1 January 2015, Annual survey of hours and earnings (ASHE) 2013. Please note: ASHE reports 2.2 million active members of DC trust-based schemes and 128,000 active members in schemes where the type was unknown.)
DC work-based personal pension schemes, also known as contract-based schemes, are excluded from this release. These types of schemes consist of:
- group personal pensions (GPPs)
- group self-invested personal pensions (GSIPPs)
- group stakeholder pensions (GSHPs)
DC contract-based schemes are subject to a different regulatory framework from DC trust-based occupational schemes. We work jointly with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) in the regulation of contract-based schemes. Individual personal pensions sit outside of our remit. As a result, all types of DC contract-based provision, both group and individual, are outside of the scope of this statistics release.
We haven't included pensioner members in this data release. This is because our figures for pensioner members do not necessarily represent the number of members who have retired but remained in the scheme. Therefore, we cannot be confident that the number of pensioner members represents the total number of retirees from that scheme, including those who transferred out.
The first four files of this statistics release, file 1: schemes, file 2: memberships, file 3: financials, and file 4: automatic enrolment schemes, refer to occupational DC trust-based schemes with 12 or more memberships (with the exception of table 1 in file 1). These schemes account for 8% of the total universe of DC trust schemes, but more than 98% of the memberships.
File 5: micro schemes is concerned with schemes of 2 to 11 memberships.
File 6: effective date information includes information on the effective dates for data submitted on memberships, contributions and assets.
For the most recent year (January 2015), 97% of schemes have an effective date for their membership data after 1 January 2012 and this represents 99.9% of members.
For contribution data, 86% of 12-plus member DC schemes (those which have 12 or more members and are not hybrid) have provided information whose effective date is 1 January 2012 or later, and this covers 99.9% of reported contributions.
For asset data, 87% of relevant schemes (those which have 12 or more members and are not hybrid) have provided information whose effective date is 1 January 2012 or later, and this covers 99.9% of reported assets.
For micro schemes:
- 90% have an effective date for their membership information of 1 January 2010 or later, and this covers 91% of memberships
- 52% of schemes have provided contribution information, and 99% of these provided information with an effective date of 1 January 2010 or later
Pension schemes in the UK with two or more memberships are required to register with The Pensions Regulator. At the point of registration, an occupational scheme provides us with the following information:
- their scheme name and contact details
- their scheme status
- membership information
- details about the relevant employer(s), trustees and service providers
In addition to registration, we also operate a scheme return process. This is a statutory requirement, under section 59 of the Pensions Act 2004.
The scheme return is how we collect information about occupational pension schemes. DC schemes with 12 or more members complete a scheme return annually and schemes with 2 to 11 members complete once every three years.
Scheme returns are submitted using our online reporting tool, Exchange. This offers several advantages, one of which is that schemes can log in to amend their details at any time using the scheme maintenance process. We send scheme return notices to schemes annually or triennially as a reminder to update their details.
We ask for more information for occupational DC trust-based schemes with 12 or more memberships in the scheme return than for smaller schemes, such as scheme leavers amounts, default strategy and decumulation options.
For more information go to scheme return.
Footnotes for this section
-  The Pensions Regulator’s remit extends to all private sector pensions where an employer facilitates contribution payments, and therefore our figures exclude personal pensions where an individual has purchased a product directly from a provider and there is no direct payment arrangement.
-  Also known as 'true hybrid'.
-  Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, Office for National Statistics (Revised version released 13 December 2013): rounded estimate of number of jobs where employee has taken up a workplace group personal or group stakeholder pension. This excludes individual personal pensions.
-  The term effective date in this context (and in file 6 generally) refers to the date supplied with the information by respondents. For instance, if a scheme counts its members on 1 April 2013, and then reports this figure to the regulator on 1 May 2013, the effective date will be 1 April 2013.
Changes from last year
We've made improvements to this year’s data release by including the results of questions which were added to the most recent scheme return.
Use of schemes for automatic enrolment
This year we asked DC schemes a series of questions relating to automatic enrolment including:
- Have any of the employers who use the scheme passed their staging date by 31 March 2014?
- Have any employers, who have passed their staging date, automatically enrolled any staff into this scheme to meet their automatic enrolment duties?
We asked a further question specifically relating to members who were in the scheme prior to the employer passing its staging date:
- Have any employers who have passed their staging date used this scheme to meet their employer duties for any staff who were existing members of the scheme?
From the responses to these questions, schemes are categorised as:
- being used for automatic enrolment
- no employers passed staging date
- not being used for automatic enrolment
File 4: automatic enrolment schemes then shows scheme, member and financial data split by scheme size and status, cross cut with the scheme's automatic enrolment status.
Money transferred into schemes
We have collected information on the amount of money being contributed to schemes for the past six years. This year we amended this section of Exchange to request users also separately provide the total amount that has been transferred in to the scheme.
Small self-administered schemes
We asked schemes with between 2 and 11 members a series of questions designed to identify whether they are small self-administered schemes. Such schemes are considered different to standard workplace pensions, principally because all members are trustees, and because all decisions are made unanimously by the trustee board, so each member has direct control over their own pension.
The questions we asked in the scheme return are:
- number of members
- all members trustees
- all decisions taken unanimously
Micro scheme assets
Previously, we reported the total value of assets reported by schemes with fewer than 12 members. However, due to some schemes having reported unreliable values, which significantly effects the overall value, we decided to remove the micro assets figure from this official statistics release.
In most cases the data we show here is a direct summary of the data we hold. However, in some cases we've performed some simple calculations to provide more useful information. In such cases we've also included the direct data from which we made the calculations – in a separate tab in the file labelled 'calculations'.
Total schemes year on year
In order to create the time series of total schemes year on year, we start with the total number of relevant schemes on the register as at 31 December 2014. We then use a table showing the total number of registrations each year, and the total number of schemes winding up each year. By removing the schemes established during 2014, and adding the schemes which wound up in that year, we create an estimate for the number of schemes as at 31 December 2013.
We continue this process back to 1997, the year when the Occupational Pensions Regulatory Authority (the predecessor to The Pensions Regulator) took responsibility for maintaining the pension schemes register. In the calculations tab the number of wind ups and registrations per year is shown dating back to 1988.
Market value of scheme assets
While the significant majority of relevant schemes has provided us with their market value of scheme assets, it's not completed by every scheme. Within the data files we've shown data for the amount of assets which have been reported to us, as well as the amount of memberships in schemes which have reported an asset figure.
In order to estimate the total amount of assets within these schemes we've calculated average assets per member for each scheme size and status banding (where size is based on the number of members) for those schemes who have supplied the information. We then apply the average to the total number of members in each segment, to extrapolate an estimate for the total amount of assets in DC trust schemes with 12 or more members.
Annual contributions (by employer and employee)
The issue for market value of scheme assets is also present for annual contributions. Within the files we've shown data for reported contributions and active members in schemes which have reported contributions.
We've used the same method to extrapolate an estimate for the total amount of contributions to trust-based DC schemes as for our estimate of assets in such schemes. The difference with respect to contributions is that we calculated the average, and the extrapolated estimate, using active members, rather than all members, as only active members are contributing.
The active membership figure could include members who were only active for part of the year.
The governance structure theme is designed to show both the number of master trusts, schemes with non-associated employers, a growth area following automatic enrolment, and also to separate out those schemes which have been created by employers (unbundled) from those which have been purchased from a pension provider (bundled), and have a single company providing all services.
The scheme return doesn't have a question which provides this split so we therefore made an estimate by analysing data provided on insurer / administrator. Where the same company is listed as both administrator and insurer we classed this as a bundled scheme, where the companies are different we classed them as unbundled, and if one or other data item is not present we labeled them 'unknown'.
This year we have started incorporating email addresses into this assessment, so if a scheme provides an individual’s name as their administrator, we then check the email address for that individual and if relevant we then assign that scheme to the appropriate company. This has resulted in identifying more bundled schemes and fewer unknown schemes.
Amounts leaving schemes
As with assets and contributions, the amounts leaving schemes has not been supplied by all schemes. In the data files we show information for the reported amounts leaving schemes, and the number of members in schemes which have reported their leaver amounts.
We extrapolated the amount of money leaving schemes for each reason using the same method as the extrapolation of market value of scheme assets.
Transfers into schemes
As with assets, contributions and leaver amounts, not all schemes have supplied relevant transfers in data. In the data files we show information for the amounts reported to be transferred in to schemes, and the number of active members in schemes which have reported transfers in.
We extrapolated the amount of money transferred into schemes using the same method as for assets, contributions and leaving amounts.
A master trust is an occupational trust-based pension scheme established by declaration of trust, which is or has been promoted to provide benefits to employers which are not connected, and where each employer group is not included in a separate section with its own trustees. For this purpose, employers are connected if they are part of the same group of companies (including partially owned subsidiaries and joint ventures).
Industry-wide master trust
An industry-wide master trust is a master trust scheme which is only offered to employers within a specific industry.
Bundled / unbundled scheme
A bundled scheme is one where the majority of services are provided by a single company, and an unbundled scheme is one where services are provided by different companies.
A scheme offering a lifetime annuity is one where – at the point of retirement – the scheme purchases an annuity in the name of the trustees, and then facilitates payment of that annuity to the member.
A scheme offering self-annuitisation will calculate an annuity payment for the member and make the payment to the member directly from scheme funds. Should the member use the fund they have built up to purchase an annuity in their own name then they cease to be a member of the scheme.
|Open to new joiners and future service||Closed to new joiners, open to future service||Closed to new joiners and future service||Winding up|
|New memberships are allowed to join the scheme.||New memberships are not allowed to join the scheme.||New memberships are not allowed to join the scheme.||New memberships are not allowed to join the scheme.|
|Existing memberships (or employers) are allowed to continue contributing.||Existing memberships (or employers) are allowed to continue contributing.||Existing memberships (or employers) are not allowed to continue contributing.||Existing memberships (or employers) are not allowed to continue contributing.|
|Funds continue to be invested.||Funds continue to be invested.||Funds continue to be invested.||Funds continue to be invested.|
|Funds continue to attract charges.||Funds continue to attract charges.||Funds continue to attract charges.||Funds continue to attract charges.|
|A scheme member who is currently paying in contributions.||A scheme member who has ceased future service, but has built up benefits which remain in the scheme.||A scheme member who is being paid a pension. An annuity has been purchased on their behalf in the name of the trustees of the scheme, or the scheme is paying a retirement income directly from scheme funds.|
|Funds continue to be invested.||Funds continue to be invested.||Funds can remain invested if the scheme operates a drawdown option.|
|Funds continue to attract charges.||Funds continue to attract charges.||Funds can continue to attract charges if the scheme operates a drawdown option.|
The number of memberships does not equate to the number of individuals, as one individual can have multiple memberships.
In DC schemes which operate self-annuitisation or lifetime annuities a member may have the option to purchase a joint life annuity. In this case a nominated dependent will receive a proportion of the member’s retirement income for the rest of their life, should the member die before the dependent.
The membership figures we collected reflect those members who are relevant for the calculation of the pension levy. As dependents are not included in this they are not reported and so they aren't included in the statistics in this release.